By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Extra info for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
1999). The transfer of resistance elements can be promoted by several factors. Launay et al. (2006) postulated that the high density and promiscuity between enterococci and human commensal anaerobes in the intestinal environment, combined with the presence of glycopeptide, created favorable conditions for transfer of the glycopeptide resistance determinant, vanB. Another factor which promotes the transfer of resistance determinants is the presence of antibiotics. The enterococcal transposon Tn917 demonstrated enhanced transposition and intercellular dissemination of macrolide resistance following exposure to erythromycin (Courvalin, 2008).
Transduction by bacteriophages or conjugation has been identified as the main mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments. Mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and transposons, play a pivotal role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. These accessory genetic elements aid in the passive and active communication between susceptible lactic acid bacteria and resistant bacteria, a prerequisite for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes (Teuber et al, 1999).
Acquired resistance may transfer foreign DNA from and back to the bacterial cell. From previous studies, the transfer of acquired resistance genes may occur under proper experimental procedures but the failure to demonstrate in vitro gene transfer does not exclude the possibility of the transfer of genes. , 2008). This often complicates the detection processes even though detection methods using various genetic approaches have been developed. Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotics 29 The development of new molecular techniques such as PCR, molecular beacons and DNA chips enhances the efficacy of detecting and monitoring resistance.
Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives by Adriel R. Bonilla