Richard Twyman's Advanced Molecular Biology: A Concise Reference PDF

By Richard Twyman

ISBN-10: 185996141X

ISBN-13: 9781859961414

Complex Molecular Biology emphasises the unifying rules and mechanisms of molecular biology, with common use of tables and containers to summarise experimental facts and gene and protein capabilities. huge cross-referencing among chapters is used to enhance and develop the certainty of middle innovations. this can be the proper resource of complete, authoritative and updated details for all these whose paintings is within the box of molecular biology.

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The yeast CDC28 and Cdc2 CDKs are phosphorylated on two key residues, Tyr-15 and Thr-161. Phosphorylated Thr-161 is required for kinase activity. whereas phosphorylated Tyr-15 is inhibitory and dominant to Thr-161 phosphorylation. The principle determinant of CDKcyclin activity in yeast is thus the state of phosphorylation of Tyr-15, and some of the upstream regulatory components have been identified. In 5. pombe, Wee I is a tyrosine kinase which phosphorylates Cdc2 at Tyr-15 and thus inactivates it.

Since CDKs phosphorylate different targets at each cell cycle transition, cyclins are required not only for kinase activity, but also for substrate specificity. In animals, alternative cydins may be differentially expressed in different cell types, which would facilitate the unique aspects of cell cycle control in distinct differentiated cells. There are generally three types of cyclin in all organisms: the G 1 cyclins which regulate the Gt-5 transition, the S-phase cydins which are required for DNA replication, and theM-phase cydins which are required for mitosis.

Mitosis. 4}. One critical but probably indirect target of theM-phase kinase is the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a destruction box-dependent ubiquitin ligase which facilitates the sudden degradation of mitotic cydins (in animals, cyclin A at metaphase and cydin B at the metaphase-anaphase transition - the differential timing may reflect the efficiencies of the destruction boxes}. Other APC targets include proteins required for maintaining the association of sister chromatids, possibly kinetochore components or perhaps a more generally distributed factor - a candidate isS.

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Advanced Molecular Biology: A Concise Reference by Richard Twyman

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